Note: words in light blue are defined in the glossary
Against the Grain When the grain of the paper runs from the spine to the foredge (left to right) which is not preferable. See Grain Direction below in glossary. For more details on “Why You Should Care”, and “How to Determine Grain Direction” see Page: Grain Direction.
Boxes See Fall-Back Box, Clamshell Box and Half-Clamshell Box.
Double-Page Spread when a photo begins on a left-hand page and continues across the gutter onto the right-hand page.
Foredge is the opening edge of the book. In the West this is on the right.
Grain Direction Paper is made up of individual fibers (cotton, wood), which are held together, often by fillers, but sometimes just mechanically by being dried together as a group. In general, hand-made paper does not have a distinctive grain direction because the pulp slurry is poured into a mould and lifted straight up and out of the water. Whereas in a commercial paper facility, the web of pulp is traveling through the papermaking machine in a fast, forward moving direction. This forward movement tends to make all of the fibers line up parallel to the direction the web is traveling, thereby creating what is called grain direction. For more details on “Why You Should Care”, and “How to Determine Grain Direction” see Page: Grain Direction.
Gutter When a book is open, the gutter is the area in the center where the two pages meet down near the binding.
Head the top of the book.
Hidden Post Flap The Post-Style (Three-Part) Portfolios (see photo below) can have flaps on the front and back covers to hide the posts, otherwise the posts are exposed and covered with matching fabric or leather. Internal Post Mechanism Portfolios have a flap at the back to access the posts.
Interior Leaves a leave is a single sheet of paper which can count as 2 pages if it is printed on the front and back or folded as with French-Folded Leaves. It will count as one page if printed on one side only.
Internal Post Mechanism Portfolio The cover is a continuous piece and the post mechanism is glued to the inside. This style is especially used when one wishes a design element to wrap around the spine uninterrupted. It has a fixed interior capacity and cannot be modified.
Inside Front Cover and Inside Back/Pocket Cover (IFC/IBC/Pocket) Just what they sound like, please learn the abbreviations.
Leave a leave is a single sheet of paper which can count as 2 pages if it is printed on the front and back or folded as with French-Folded Leaves. It will count as one page if printed on one side only.
Paste Downs are what finish the Inside Front Cover and Inside Back/Pocket Cover (IFC/IBC/Pocket). They can be made out of paper or fabic which is either cut out and flush mounted or, for a more dimensional feel, wrapped around bristol first.
Prototype The first book made is the prototype. It has all the design components: the chosen fabric, leather &/or paper; foil stamping; interior printed leaves; etc. It’s the real thing, but at this stage things can be tweaked before production on final quantity begins.
Score Most scoring is done with a bone folder by running it along a straight edge and gently crushing the paper fibers thereby allowing the paper to bend or be folded at the score. The photo at left is of a kiss score made with a scalpel at the foredge of a French-Folded Leave. It creates a white crisp edge and is used if paper cracks excessively when folded or when using paper printed against the grain.
Post-Style (Three-Part) Portfolio has front and back covers and a removable spine piece which allows for future expansion. The number of interior leaves can increase by replacing the spine piece with a larger one and adding either a post extender or making new posts, if need be. Note: make sure your Shipping/Messenger Bags are designed to accommodate future growth.
Shipping/Messenger Bag Rigid or semi-regid and padded bags to hold a portfolio and sometimes a box containing ancillary items(such as tear sheets or promos) or special presentations. Note: make sure your bags are designed to accommodate future growth in your portfolio or possible addition of a box.
Spine in the West the left bound side of the book.
Tail the bottom of the book.
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